Account Abstraction is the process of separating the notion of “ownership” from the actual execution of transactions through an abstraction layer.

It is no news that the next evolution of the internet and decentralized web known as Web3 is steadily gaining popularity and making significant advancements. Alongside this progress, there are promises of decentralised applications (dApps) and smart contracts that will possess the potential to revolutionize industries. This, they plan to do by eliminating intermediaries and fostering trust.

However, some individuals have raised concerns regarding the current infrastructure of Web3. They have stated that it is not tailored for mainstream users and this hinders the accessibility of Web3 applications for everyday people. To this end, several projects and tools have been developed with the intention of enhancing user-friendliness within the ecosystem. 

One notable example is Account Abstraction.

A work desk with a large screen showing web development jargon to depict Web3 in Account Abstraction

Account Abstraction

Account abstraction is a recent development making waves in the Web3 community. The idea was initiated as a means to enhance user experiences when interacting with Ethereum. This will allow for more flexibility in the management and ownership of user accounts.

It involves the separation of an Ethereum account’s control from its corresponding private key. Instead of relying solely on a private key for the control of your wallet, the control is done through a smart contract. While certain actions still require private key signatures within the smart contract, other tasks can be delegated to the contract using predefined rules.

Before delving further into Account Abstraction, it’s important to understand the two types of Ethereum accounts.

Ethereum Accounts

Ethereum logo representing two types of Ethereum accounts in an account abstraction article

There are two types of Ethereum accounts and they are; Contract Accounts(CAs) and Externally Owned Accounts (EOAs). Contract Accounts are governed by smart contract code, while EOAs are managed through public and private keys.

Over time, Contract Accounts have demonstrated advantages over EOAs. This is largely because the initial steps of interacting with dApps through EOAs can be time-consuming and burdensome. EOAs also face challenges when interacting with smart contracts and pose risks if private keys are lost or misplaced.

‘EOAs(Externally Owned Accounts) are the primary and standard accounts held by individuals or entities in a blockchain network. This allows a user to perform various fundamental actions. They are controlled by private keys and are commonly used by the average Ethereum user, who accesses their account through wallets and interacts with the blockchain.’

What does Account Abstraction promise?

Also, user accounts in blockchain networks like Ethereum are controlled by private keys that are associated with a specific Ethereum address. This means that in order to interact with the network, a user needs to have an Ethereum address as well as the matching private key. 

As a result of all of these shortcomings, the idea of Account Abstraction came into view. Consequently, Account Abstraction allows for different account management systems to be built on top of the Ethereum network. This, in turn, makes it easier for users to interact with the network without having to deal with the complexity of safeguarding private keys.

Furthermore, Account Abstraction promises to take away the complexity of having to use both externally-owned accounts (EOAs) and smart contracts. Instead, it unifies them together and empowers users to enhance the security and user experiences associated with their accounts through flexible programming.

The Implementation of ERC – 4337 into Account Abstraction

Ethereum logo in a web representing implementation of ERC - 4337 in Account Abstraction

After the implementation, the adoption of ERC – 4337 followed. The primary motive behind this adoption is to guarantee the absence of any alterations to the consensus-layer protocol. Moreover, it provides guidelines and specifications for developers to implement account abstraction in their applications.

Despite being initially proposed in EIP – 2938, it was changed to EIP – 4337 due to its need for modifications to the Ethereum protocol. Nonetheless, it eventually gained traction with the introduction of EIP – 4337, which later became known as ERC – 4337. Unlike EIP – 2938, ERC – 4337 did not necessitate alterations to the Ethereum consensus. Instead, it employed an “account contract” to facilitate the abstraction of EOAs and CAs at the application layer.

This implementation became feasible because the account contract acted as an intermediary between the application layer and the Ethereum blockchain. Consequently, it enabled the abstraction of account types without necessitating changes to the underlying consensus protocol.

 ERC – 4337 came into existence for the following reasons:

  • Freedom from reliance on seed phrases
  • Minimization of human errors with smart contract wallets
  • Adoption of standard user onboarding with the use of mobile devices
  • Easy implementation of changes on other Ethereum Virtual Machine EVM compatible chains
  • Compatibility with future signature schemes like BLS and Quantum resistance, enhancing network security
  • Activation of bank-like features like autopay, account recovery and multifactor authentication.

By implementing Account Abstraction, the majority of hurdles encountered while utilizing Web3 wallets and engaging decentralized applications (dapps) are eliminated. This advancement moves Web3 closer to a point where users of all levels, whether beginners or experts, can equally enjoy the advantages of flexibility, security, and user-friendliness.

Consequently, the integration of Safe{Core} Account Abstraction SDK into Ethereum’s ecosystem emerges as a noteworthy milestone in this progression. Now, let us take a dive into what Safe{Core} Account Abstraction SDK is.

Safe{Core} Account Abstraction SDK

Safe{Core} Account Abstraction SDK, an open-source developer stack, is one of the pioneering implementations of Account Abstraction on the Ethereum blockchain. This is a smart contract system built on Ethereum that allows users to incorporate account abstraction functionality to their apps.

The achievement of Safe Global, in collaboration with Web3 infrastructure companies like Web3Auth, Gelato, and the payment processing giant Stripe, is noteworthy. Together, they have created an end-to-end experience with Safe{Core}, the platform at hand. Moreover, these strategic partners have made significant contributions in three key areas.

Firstly, they have focused on fiat on-ramping, ensuring a smooth transition between traditional fiat currencies and the Ethereum network. Additionally, they have simplified transaction fees and payment flows, streamlining the process for users. Lastly, they have prioritized project authentication, enhancing security and trust within the ecosystem. 

What Safe{Core} Account Abstraction SDK promises

By leveraging the expertise and resources of these companies, Safe{Core} has significantly improved the user experience for developers. As a result, Safe{Core} empowers developers to seamlessly integrate Account Abstraction into their Web3 applications. 

Simultaneously, it delivers a user experience that evokes the familiarity of Web2. This unique combination promises not to only enhance the functionality and capabilities of Web3 technologies. It will also provides developers with the convenience and comfort associated with traditional web applications.

By closing this divide and providing a more accessible and user-friendly environment, Safe{Core} is poised to attract a wider range of users, encompassing both novices and seasoned individuals. As the user base expands, it will contribute to the flourishing and diversification of the Ethereum ecosystem.

The integration of Safe{Core} Account Abstraction SDK marks a major Ethereum milestone, bridging the gap towards user-friendliness found in Web2 apps. In other words, developers can now build smooth and intuitive experiences for users, driving greater adoption of Ethereum-based applications

With the improved user experience and enhanced convenience, more developers, users, and businesses are expected to join the Ethereum ecosystem. This will expand its potential use cases and further solidifying its position as a leading blockchain platform.

What does Safe{Core}Account Abstraction SDK mean for Users?

Smart Accounts

A pile of coins layered with a man sitting on it to depict Safe{Core} in Account Abstraction

‘Smart accounts are a type of programmable accounts which combine the functionalities of smart contracts and traditional accounts. Additionally, they are capable of carrying out transactions based on predefined conditions.’ 

Proposed as a replacement for EOAs, smart contract accounts operate within the Ethereum Virtual Machine. They can be controlled by conventional EOA accounts. These accounts function as programmable wallets, offering users the ability to personalize their operations. 

With smart account configurations, users can conveniently schedule automated payments to specific recipients. As a result, users actively eliminate the need for manual intervention or the use of specific wallets.

Multi-signature Wallets

By implementing multi-signature wallets, Safe{Core} ensures heightened security by requiring approval from multiple authorized parties for transactions. This innovative approach grants users complete control over their funds, with transactions executed directly on the blockchain. 

As a result, intermediaries are eliminated, significantly reducing the risk of unauthorized access. Moreover, Safe{Core} offers a user-friendly interface that simplifies the management of multi-sig wallets, making this robust security feature accessible to both experienced users and newcomers alike.

Wallet Connect

A mobile phone with a paper on it that reads 'sign here' in to depict wallet login in Account Abstraction

Safe{Core} SDK allows for greater flexibility and functionality in blockchain systems. One of the key benefits of Safe{Core} with ERC – 4337 is that it works seamlessly with Wallet Connect. Wallet connect is a protocol that allows users to connect their mobile wallets to dApps on their desktop computers, providing a secure and easy way to manage their cryptocurrency assets. 

It works by creating a secure connection between the user’s wallet and the dApp, allowing the user to sign transactions and manage their assets without exposing their private keys to the dApp or any other third-party. By using Safe{Core} with Wallet Connect, users can enjoy the benefits of account abstraction while still being able to use their preferred wallet. 

Enhanced User Experience

The Safe{Core}, particularly with the utilization of ERC-4337, introduces a remarkable enhancement to the user experience by streamlining the interaction with decentralized applications (dApps). 

This approach actively relieves users from the burden of complex transaction management. Instead, they can effortlessly engage with dApps using a more intuitive interface. This will effectively broaden the accessibility of blockchain applications to a wider audience in a simplified and less technical manner.

Decentralized Transactions

Different technology tools and coins to represent decentralization in Account Abstraction

The Ethereum network primarily relies on EOAs as wallets but demonstrates a clear dependence on third-party providers such as MetaMask and imToken. Despite their widespread popularity, users actively shoulder the entire responsibility of managing their accounts through their private keys. Consequently, there exists a potential risk of losing access and funds in the event of misplacing the private key.

To tackle this concern, ERC – 4337 aims to introduce powerful smart contract accounts. These advanced accounts enable decentralized payment of transaction fees. Subsequently, this will effectively eliminate the need for centralized relays and enhancing user control over their funds.

Gas Optimization and Flexibility

Gas fees have been a persistent concern in blockchain networks. ERC – 4337 also addresses this issue by enabling gas optimization through account abstraction. By separating the user interface from the underlying transaction structure, developers can perform gas optimizations by aggregating multiple user actions into a single transaction. 

This consolidation aims to reduce the overall gas costs and enhance the efficiency of DApp interactions, ensuring more affordable and scalable blockchain transactions for users.

Furthermore, with wallets powered by ERC-4337, users will have the option to pay gas fees using ERC-20 tokens and other supported tokens. This significant advancement empowers developers to create wallets that accept gas fee payments in various tokens, including fiat currencies. This will eventually broaden the scope of payment options available within the ecosystem.


Using smart contracts as an abstraction layer makes it possible for users to do more complicated things with dApps. For example, they can do transactions that depend on certain conditions or give permission to others. It also helps different blockchain networks and protocols work together smoothly.

By removing the need for a middleman and allowing the use of multiple accounts, developers can easily make their applications compatible with different blockchain platforms. This helps different blockchains work together,  foster cross-chain compatibility and interoperability.

Reduced Risk of Theft/Loss of Private Keys

Ethereum, Blockchain and other coins scattered around with a ledger at the center to depict protection of keys in an Account Abstraction article

Another benefit of Safe{Core} is that it significantly reduces the risk of loss or theft of private keys and security breaches. This is admittedly, one of the biggest barriers to mainstream adoption of Web3. In contrast to traditional blockchain architectures, account abstraction separates user account management from smart contract execution, reducing the risk of hacks and security breaches. 

Users can now execute smart contracts without exposing their private keys, ensuring greater privacy and security as sensitive information of users is being protected. This separation also makes it harder for attackers to exploit vulnerabilities in smart contracts to gain access to user accounts.

Account Control

A hand holding a mobile phone with a 'thumbprint' indication to represent account control in Account Abstraction

Safe{Core} also gives users greater control over their accounts. With traditional blockchain architectures, users have limited control over the execution of smart contracts and must trust third-party platforms and service providers. On the contrary, account abstraction allows users to execute smart contracts directly from their accounts. As a result, giving them greater control over their transactions and reducing the need to trust intermediaries. 

Additionally, it allows users to delegate control of their assets to trusted third parties, without having to give them direct access to their private keys. This is especially important for users who cannot manage their own assets or who may not have the technical knowledge to do so effectively.


The Safe{Core} SDK is crucial for blockchain technology to achieve mass adoption and in terms of onboarding new users to Web3 as it has enormous potential. Furthermore, it actively abstracts away the complexity of managing private keys and actively delegates control of assets, making it much easier for mainstream users to get started with Web3.

The Safe{Core} SDK represents a significant step forward for blockchain technology that will help onboard the next billion users to Web3. With the aforementioned benefits, Safe{Core} will pave the way for a more accessible, efficient, and innovative blockchain ecosystem. Subsequently, this will drive the widespread adoption of decentralized applications.